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Types of Valves
Due to the different environments, system fluids, and system conditions in which flow must be controlled, a large number of valve designs have been advanced.
A basic understanding of the differences between the different types of valves, and how these differences affect valve function, will help ensure the correct application of each valve type during design and the proper use of each valve type during operation.
Check valves are designed to prevent the difficulty of flow in a piping system. These valves are activated by the flowing material in the pipeline. The pressure of the fluid passing through the system opens the valve, while any reversal of flow will close the valve. Closure is accomplished by the weight of the check mechanism, by back pressure, by a spring, or by a combination of these means. The general types of check valves are swing, tilting-disk, piston, butterfly, and stop.
A ball valve is a rotating motion valve that uses a ball-shaped disk to stop or start fluid flow. The ball performs the same function as the disk in the globe valve. When the valve handle is turned to open the valve, the ball rotates to a point where the hole through the ball is in line with the valve body inlet and outlet. When the valve is shut, the ball is rotated so that the hole is perpendicular to the flow openings of the valve body and the flow is stopped.
A butterfly valve is a rotating motion valve that is used to stop, regulate, and start fluid flow. Butterfly valves are simply and quickly operated because a 90° rotation of the handle moves the disk from a fully closed to fully opened position. Larger butterfly valves are actuated by handwheels connected to the stem through gears that provide mechanical advantage at the expense of speed.
A gate valve is a linear motion valve used to start or stop fluid flow; however, it does not control or regulate flow. The name gate is resulting from the appearance of the disk in the flow stream
A globe valve is a linear motion valve used to stop, start, and control fluid flow.
A plug valve is a rotating motion valve used to stop or start fluid flow. The name is resulting from the shape of the disk, which look like a plug. The simplest form of a plug valve is the petcock. The body of a plug valve is machined to receive the tapered or cylindrical plug. The disk is a solid plug with a bored passage at a right angle to the longitudinal axis of the plug.
Relief and Safety Valve
Relief and safety valves avoid equipment damage by get rid of accidental over-pressurization of fluid systems. An a relief valve and a safety valve is the extent of opening at the set point pressure.